High School Fitness Study Guide
Benefits of Exercise
- Improves heart health: Lowers resting heart rate, reduces risk of heart disease, Improves circulation and respiration, Lowers blood pressure
- Maintains healthy weight
- Lowers bad cholesterol and improves good
- Increases energy levels: Able to exercise longer without getting tired
- Disease Prevention
- Releases daily stress
- Increases self esteem
- Improves mood
- Reduces depression
- Increase social skills
- Respect for others
- Meet new people
Risks in not Exercising
- Cardiovascular disease
- High blood pressure
- High Cholesterol
Health Components of Physical Fitness
Cardiovascular Endurance: The ability of your heart and lungs to supply oxygen/fuel to your body during prolonged physical activity. Examples of cardiovascular activities include walking, jogging, cycling, swimming and aerobics.
Muscular Strength is the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to exert a maximal force against a resistance. Strength is often measured by how much weight you can lift. Examples: Weightlifting, push-ups, squats, sit ups
Muscular Endurance the ability to use your muscles many times without tiring.
Examples: Weightlifting, push-ups, squats, sit ups
Flexibility is the ability to use your joints fully through a wide range of motion. You are flexible when your muscles are able to freely and comfortably move through a full range of motion without difficulty. Examples: stretching, yoga
Body Composition is the percentage of body weight that is made up of fat when compared to other body tissue, such as bone and muscle.
Agility is the ability to change directions and levels quickly and efficiently. An example exercise involving agility is the shuttle run.
Coordination is the ability to move two different body parts simultaneously with purpose and direction. An example exercise involving coordination is jump roping.
Balance is the ability to hold a position and remain stable over one’s center of gravity. An example exercise involving balance is a “V” sit.
Power is the ability to generate a large amount of force quickly; to explode. An example exercise involving power is the standing long jump.
Reaction Time is the ability to react or respond quickly to what you hear, see or feel.
Speed is the ability to move swiftly from one point to another
Principles of an Exercise Program (F.I.T.T Principle)
Frequency: How often you exercise. Recommended 3 to 5 days a week.
Intensity: How hard you exercise. Recommended intensity is between 60 – 90% of your max heart rate (target heart rate zone).
Time: How long you exercise. Recommended exercise bout is from 20 – 60 minutes
Type: Mode of exercise. Activities that involve aerobic or anaerobic systems; jogging, weight training, jump roping…etc.
Progressive overload: In order for the body to make a physiological adaptation or produce a training effect, exercise should be performed at a level progressively above that at which the individual usually performs.
Aerobic exercise is activity that is steady enough to allow the heart to supply all the oxygen your muscles need. The term aerobic means “with oxygen.” Aerobic activity is especially beneficial to building high levels of cardiovascular fitness and help in controlling body fatness.
Anaerobic exercise is activity done in short bursts. The term Anaerobic means “without oxygen.” When you do anaerobic activity, your body cannot supply blood and oxygen to the muscles as fast as the body needs it.
Anatomy of a Workout (Stages of a total fitness workout)
Warm-up-- 5 to 10 minutes (work muscles at a moderate pace to generate blood flow through the body before stretching)
Stretch—5-10 minutes (use dynamic or static stretching)
Activity-- 20 to 40 minutes (Exercise at a pace that keeps your heart rate in your target heart rate zone)
Cool Down-- 5 to 10 minutes (work muscles at a moderate pace to properly and gradually bring body back down after exercise)
Stretch—5-10 minutes (use dynamic or static stretches to reduce the chances of injury and rid the muscles of lactic acid)